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Countering Hybrid Warfare in the Black Sea Region

Strengthening Institutional Frameworks for Protection and Resilience

The Black Sea region remains a critical arena in Russia’s ongoing war against Ukraine. For years, the Kremlin has relied on a complex arsenal of tools for interference in and destabilization of the countries in the region. Moscow deploys these tools in a concerted manner to advance its agenda by seeking to fracture internal unity and integrity within the EU and NATO through political manipulation and economic bullying. Disinformation-backed active measures play a pivotal role in Russia’s toolkit of influence and are fully integrated within Russia’s foreign policy.

This report examines Russian disinformation operations in the context of weapons of mass destruction non-proliferation and how it fits within the Kremlin’s hybrid warfare strategy in the Black Sea region. The report highlights policy options and practical steps and measures for enhancing institutional resilience against Russian influence operations and mitigating the risk of malign interference.

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